RAJUK’s capacity in
Dhaka city. TOD will reduce the pressure on Dhaka city, reduce dependency on private vehicles and importantly improve the mass transportation at the regional level. It will ensure balanced urbanisation in Dhaka region. Further it will:
protect the agricultural land, forest and nature between the urban centres.
will provide opportunities for access to the open countryside for the urban population;
retain water bodies around the urban areas and attractive landscapes
Figure: Dispersal of Dhaka’s Growth in the Region
Local Level Proposals
Planning standards and planning laws should be enforced and practiced properly.
RAJUK’s planning permission process should be more simple and transparent. Adequate database, cross checking of data, frequent field supervision, provision of accountability, provision of strong penalty in case of default etc should be regularized and made compulsory.
RAJUK is a town planning institution and its three basic tasks are planning, development and control. Organogram of RAJUK should be reviewed and duties and responsibilities should be reexamined. Right people with right qualification should work in the appropriate positions. Planners should be appointed in the key positions of town planning and development control, for instance, Member (Planning), Director Town Planning, Director Plan Preparation, and Director Development Control etc.
RAJUK should recruit enough planning professionals in its regular set-up for increasing its institutional capacity. Comparing the other cities of the world and the Bangladesh context at least one Urban Planner should work for serving one lakh population of Dhaka City. For the efficient management and development control, it is necessary to develop a strong GIS database of each parcel of land, its land use, use of each floor of a building, number of people accommodating that building etc. Therefore, information will be on the hand of Urban Planner and he will exercise the Rules of the State as required.
To provide planning service to the 12 million population of Dhaka at least 120 Urban Planner should work in the whole RAJUK area so that they can look after the plan and manage the growth of the city. Ward Commissioners in the DCC area, chairmen of concern pourashavas and the Union chairmen in the RAJUK area should be co-opted in the development control process.
Azam, A.K., 2006, “Improvement of the Water Supply System in Dhaka, Zonal Approach ,” Dhaka WASA, Dhaka.
DMDP. 1993. Strategic Growth Options – Dhaka 2016, Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha, Dhaka
DMDP. 1995. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan, Vol – I, Structure Plan (1995-2015), Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha, Dhaka
DMDP. 1995. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan, Vol – II, Urban Area Plan (1995-2005), Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha, Dhaka
Gallion, A. & Eisner, S. 1986. The Urban Pattern: City Planning and Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, USA.
GoB. 2008. Mohanagar Imarat Nirman Bidhimala 2008, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka
Haque, A.M., 2004, “Hydrostratygraphy and Aquifer Piezometry of Dhaka City”, A Post Graduate Diploma Project, Institute of Water and Flood Management, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Mahmud, A. 2008. FAR as a Development Control Tool: A New Growth Management Technique for Dhaka City, The Jahangirnagar Planning Review, Volume 6, June 2008, ISSN no: 1728-4198, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jahangirnagar University.
Mahmud, A. 2007. Sound Planning Permission Process as Prerequisite for Development Control in the Urban Areas: A Case Study on Dhaka City, The Jahangirnagar Planning Review, Volume- 5, June 2007, ISSN no: 1728-4198, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jahangirnagar University.
Mahmud, A. 2006. Insufficient Enforcement of Planning Standards by RAJUK Hindered the Growth Management, The Jahangirnagar Review, Part II: Social Science, Vol. XXIX, 2005, pp59-74 Dhaka
O’Sullivan, A. 1996. Urban Economics, Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill- a division of the McGraw-Hill Company.
RAJUK. 1996. Building Construction Rules 1996, Dhaka
Continued from S7
consult with the beneficiaries of the project. People, for whom the plans are being made, need to be consulted since the Detailed Area Plan must accommodate their needs and reflect their hopes and aspirations. This consultation is related to formulation of planning principles and standards. It is designed to be carried out after completion of all survey activities and understanding of the basic characteristics of the project area. Moreover, various land development techniques which need people’s participation like Land Readjustment, Guided Land Development and Urban Renewal Programs had to be taken into consideration. Various land development techniques essentially require public participation for the successful implementation. Moreover, effective public participation may lessen the need for land acquisition, which in turn, reduces the public sector investment requirements for the project. Formulation of appropriate planning principles and standards also calls for such consultations. On the other hand, service providing agencies are also equally important since they play vital a role in the implementation of the development plans. Government policy structures for the various utilities & services play a very important part in attracting public sector investments. So, essential discussion about the future investment plans of various government agencies prior to finalization of detailed plan had to be conducted.
At the end of second consultation an extensive exercise has been made to compile the wish list of the stakeholders. Simultaneously, information on public sector investment has also been collected. Stakeholders’ wish list (only those with relevance to DAP) and public sector investment plans, has been plotted together in the base map and an integrated plan of stakeholders’ desire and public investment plan has been prepared. The wish list at this stage including things like the mitigation of water logging problem, initiation of multidisciplinary transportation system, establishment of regional and theme park, installation of sanitary latrines and improvement of solid waste management system to prevent environmental degradation, conversion of blight area into modern area, preservation of heritage sites, construction of complex regarding health, education and employment etc. is quite long. However some of the wishes like improvement of law and order, and even the wishes which require government policy decisions, have been passed to the respective departments for taking action. A good number of wishes are already in the public sector investment action plan and some of them have received prioritized consideration.
Impact of desire and aspiration
An impact assessment of the listed projects has been completed, before plotting them on the base map.
If the listed projects are implemented, the living environment may improve. This may enhance the working capacity of people resulting in higher productivity. Improvement of infrastructure may attract investments, therefore, new jobs will be created, income level will be raised, and living standards will be enhanced. Enhanced living standard will create demand for more consumer goods and better housing and consumption may be increased.
Structural changes in the social fabric may take place due to large scale immigration of heterogeneous communities in the proposed neighbourhoods. Care has to be taken so that concentration of people of same community is maintained for achieving a desired social mix. But tendencies which may hamper growth of communal harmony, especially among religious groups, should be discouraged at any cost.
The projects, as per the wish list of the stakeholders, if realized, may have tremendous effect on the existing health infrastructure and environment. Newly proposed roads, drains and sanitation works may involve new construction, upgrading or rehabilitation of existing structures. Development may adversely affect health environment through dust pollution, air pollution and sound pollution. Community initiatives may mitigate them without hampering the development work.
Third consultation (actual exercises begin, specific requirement)
At this stage the actual Plan preparation exercise begins. On the basis of the first two consultations, specific recommendations about land and utilities requirement for the projected population are presented. This has been guided by the DMDP Structure Plan policies of consolidation, acceleration, promotion, and development. At this stage, however, planning is less important than keeping an eye on land and projected population. For land requirement of the projected population, the study keeps its eye on the existing urban area (core area) and new urban area (fringe area). Moreover, the study keeps emphasizing the difference between existing urban areas and new urban areas and also the changing pattern of peripheral areas where development pressure is low. Following the consequences of the development trend the experts concentrate their study on the formulation of planning strategy and the strategy for development. On the basis of spatial situation the expert has to identify the existing facilities and on that basis they have to recommend existing facilities and facilities to be implemented for less advantaged areas in accordance with population and availability of land. Development trend, as experienced in fringe areas, like a situation of right of way, condition of utilities like water supply, gas, telecommunication, drainage, electricity are not being delivered as well as in the core area. For acceleration of proper urban growth, a strategy has to be designed following spatial growth and population pressure.
Priorities and phasing
After third consultation with stakeholder on different issues it is imperative to fix the priorities and phasing of the over-all development proposals. To make successful all kinds of participation and consultation, the expert had to identify the real problem that hindered the overall development. It appears from the consultations, from practical experience and from DMDP guidelines, that the development pressure is not similar everywhere (the core area, the urban fringe area, new urban developing area and some parts of peripheral area). Therefore the priorities and phasing has been fixed following the spatial characteristics, stakeholder’s desires, prosperity of location, level of environment, social and economic prosperity and constraint of the area. Likewise, some peripheral areas have been discouraged for development considering the exigency of protection of the natural environment. In spite of all these considerations, physical constraints in the form of absence of buildable flood free land, poor access facilities and low level of public sector investment in infrastructure development inhibit accelerated development.
After completion of work, a review committee was formed for assessing the proposals of Detailed Area Plan. It consisted of a sixteen member Technical Working Group (TWG) to analyze DAP and formulate appropriate recommendations. After careful review and necessary correction of some inconsistencies, the Review Committee proposed some recommendations which have been incorporated in the DAP. Finally, the Detailed Area Plan was made public through a gazette notification dated 22th June, 2010.
In this discussion, the strategy of community participation based on consultations with stakeholders at different levels has been presented. Though the Detailed Area Plan is a macro level instrument, it has based itself on substantive micro level components from the socio-structural perspective, with a view to ensure its functional significance and long term viability. ‘Community participation’ strategy which forms a novel and necessary component of DAP has been focused on here exclusively. Its importance lies not in pushing the primary concerns of a planning document to a secondary position, like highlighting efficient land use in residential, commercial, industrial, infrastructural development and land preservation for future use and so on. But rather its importance lies in incorporating the very human community and social dimensions that are the final arbiters, whether or not the rules or laws framed will work, when people are left in the dark at the time of their framing. Despite this, there is no guarantee that this new participatory planning and plan implementation strategy will yield the desired result in practice. For this, the authorities concerned will have to continue to uphold the spirit of participatory planning and participatory implementation, keeping the lawful and ecological rights and interests of the city itself in focus.
The writer is former director of plan preparations, Rajuk and former project director of Detail Area Plan
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2. UNDP/UNCHS-BGD/88/052, Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan, Hoque Printing Press , December 1995.
3. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha, Detailed Area Plan Report, 2007.